​​​​​​​UPSC CIVIL SERVICES MAINS EXAM 2020


​GS Question Paper 1 

Total Marks: 250 marks                                                               Time duration: 3 hours.

There are 20 questions. All questions are compulsory.

Answers to questions no. 1 to 10 should be in 150 words, whereas answers to questions no. 11 to 20 should be in 250 words.

1. The rock-cut architecture represents one of the most important sources of our knowledge of early Indian art and history. Discuss.  10 Marks

2. Pala period is the most significant phase in the history of Buddhism in India. Enumerate.  10 Marks

3. Evaluate the policies of Lord Curzon and their long term implications on the national movements. 10 Marks

4. Discuss the geophysical characteristics of Circum- Pacific Zone. 10 Marks


5. The process of desertification does not have climate boundaries. Justify with examples. 10 Marks

6. How will the melting of Himalayan glaciers have a far-reaching impact on the water resources of India? 10 Marks

7. Account for the present location of iron and steel industries away from the source of raw material, by giving examples. 10 Marks


8. Has caste lost its relevance in understanding the multi-cultural Indian Society? Elaborate your answer with illustrations. 10 Marks

9. COVID-19 pandemic accelerated class inequalities and poverty in India. Comment. 10 Marks

10. Do you agree that regionalism in India appears to be a consequence of rising cultural assertiveness? Argue. 10 Marks

11. Indian Philosophy and tradition played a significant role in conceiving and shaping the monuments and their art in India. Discuss. 15 Marks

12. Persian literary sources of medieval India reflect the spirit of the age. Comment. 15 Marks

13. Since the decade of the 1920s, the national movement acquired various ideological strands and thereby expanded its social base. Discuss. 15 Marks

14. The interlinking of rivers can provide viable solutions to the multi-dimensional inter-related problems of droughts, floods and interrupted navigation. Critically examine. 15 Marks

15. Account for the huge flooding of million cities in India including the smart ones like Hyderabad and Pune. Suggest lasting remedial measures. 15 Marks


16. India has immense potential of solar energy though there are regional variations in its developments. Elaborate. 15 Marks

17. Examine the status of forest resources of India and its resultant impact on climate change.              15 Marks


18. Is diversity and pluralism in India under threat due to globalisation? Justify your answer.              15 Marks

19. Customs and traditions suppress reason leading to obscurantism. Do you agree? 15 Marks

20. How have digital initiatives in India contributed to the functioning of the education system in the country? Elaborate your answer. 15 Marks


​GS Question Paper 2 

Total Marks: 250 marks                                                               Time duration: 3 hours.

There are 20 questions. All questions are compulsory.

Answers to questions no. 1 to 10 (10 marks each) should be in 150 words, whereas answers to questions no. 11 to 20 (15 marks each)should be in 250 words. 


1. “There is a need for simplification of Procedure for disqualification of persons found guilty of corrupt practices under the Representation of Peoples Act”. Comment 


2. “Recent amendments to the Right to Information Act will have profound impact on the autonomy and independence of the Information Commission”. Discuss. 


3. How far do you think cooperation, competition and confrontation have shaped the nature of federation in India? Cite some recent examples to validate your answer. 


4. The judicial system in India and UK seem to be converging as well as diverging in recent times. Highlight the key points of convergence and divergence between the two nations in terms of their judicial practices. 


5. ‘Once a Speaker, Always a speaker’! Do you think this practice should be adopted to impart objectivity to the office of the Speaker of Lok Sabha? What could be its implication for the robust functioning of parliamentary business in India? 


6. In order to enhance the prospects of social development, sound and adequate health care policies are needed in the fields of geriatric and maternal health care. Discuss 


7. “Institutional quality is a crucial driver of economic performance”. In this context, suggest reforms in Civil Service for Strengthening Democracy. 

8. “The emergence of Fourth Industrial Revolution (Digital Revolution) has initiated e-Governance as an integral part of the government”. Discuss 


9. Critically examine the role of WHO in providing global health security during the COVID-19 Pandemic. 


10. “Indian diaspora has a decisive role to play in the politics and economy of America and European Countries”. Comment with examples. 


11. Indian Constitution exhibits centralising tendencies to maintain unity and integrity of the nation. Elucidate in the perspective of the Epidemic Diseases Act, 1897; The Disaster Management Act, 2005 and recently passed Farm Acts. 


12. Judicial legislation is antithetical to the doctrine of separation of powers as envisaged in the Indian Constitution. In this context justify the filing of large number of public interest petitions praying for issuing guidelines to executive authorities.


13. The strength and sustenance of local institutions in India has shifted from their formative phase of ‘functions, functionaries and funds’ to the contemporary stage of’ functionality’. Highlight the critical challenges faced by local institutions in terms of their functionality in recent times. 


14. Rajyasabha has been transformed from a ‘useless Stepney tire’ to the most useful supportive organ in past few decades. Highlight the factors as well as areas in which this transformation could be visible. 


15. Which steps are required for constitutionalisation of a commission? Do you think imparting constitutionality to the national commission for woman would ensure greater gender justice and empowerment in India? Give reasons. 


16. “Incidence and intensity of poverty are most important in determining poverty based on income alone”. In this context analyze the latest United Nations Multi Poverty Index report. 


17. “Microfinance as an anti-poverty vaccine is aimed at asset creation and income security of the rural poor in India”. Evaluate the role of Self Help Groups in achieving twin objectives along with empowering women in rural India. 


18. National Electronic Policy 2020 is in conformity with the Sustainable Development Goals-4 (2030). It intended to restructure and re-orient the education system in India. Critically examine the statement.


19. Quadrilateral Security Dialogue is transforming itself into a trade block from the military alliance, in present times. Discuss (Answer in 250 words)

20. What is the significance of Indo-US deals over Indo-Russian defence deals? Discuss with reference to stability in the Indo-Pacific region.


GS Question Paper 3 

Total Marks: 250 marks                                                               Time duration: 3 hours.

There are 20 questions. All questions are compulsory.

Answers to questions no. 1 to 10 should be in 150 words, whereas answers to questions no. 11 to 20 should be in 250 words.​


1. Explain intra-generational and inter-generational issues of equity from the perspective of inclusive growth and sustainable development.         10 marks

2. Define potential GDP and explain its determinants. What are the factors that have been inhibiting India from realizing its potential GDP?     10   marks


3. What are the main constraints in transport and marketing of agricultural produce in India?      10   marks


4. What are the challenges and opportunities of food processing sector in the country? How can income of the farmers be substantially increased by encouraging food processing?        10   marks


5. What do you understand by nanotechnology and how is it helping in health sector?  10   marks

 
6. How is science interwoven deeply with our lives? What are the striking changes in agriculture triggered off by the science-based technologies?        10   marks


7. How does the draft Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) Notification, 2020 differ from the existing EIA Notification, 2006?        10   marks


8. What are the salient features of the Jal Shakti Abhiyan launched by the Government of India for water conservation and water security?        10   marks


9. Discuss different types of cybercrimes and measures required to be taken to fight the menace.  10   marks


10. For effective border area management, discuss the steps required to be taken to deny local support to militants and also suggest ways to manage favourable perception among locals.     10   marks


11. Explain the meaning of investment in an economy in terms of capital formation. Discuss the factors to be considered while designing a concession agreement between a public entity and a private entity.  15 marks


12. Explain the rationale behind the Goods and Services Tax (Compensation to States) Act of 2017. How has COVID-19 impacted the GST compensation fund and created new federal tensions?  15 marks


13. What are the major factors responsible for making rice-wheat system a success? In spite of this success how has this system become bane in India?  15 marks


14. Suggest measures to improve water storage and irrigation system to make its judicious use under depleting scenario.      15 marks


15. COVID-19 pandemic has caused unprecedented devastation worldwide. However, technological advancements are being availed readily to win over the crisis. Give an account of how technology was sought to aid management of the pandemic.      15 marks


16. Describe the benefits of deriving electric energy from sunlight in contrast to the conventional energy generation. What are the initiatives offered by our Government for this purpose?     15 marks


17. What are the key features of the National Clean Air Programme (NCAP) initiated by the Government of India?             15 marks


18. Discuss the recent measures initiated in disaster management by the Government of India departing from the earlier reactive approach.     15 marks

                                    
19. What are the determinants of left-wing extremism in Eastern part of India? What strategy should Government of India, civil administration and security forces adopt to counter the threat in the affected areas?       15 marks


20. Analyse internal security threats and trans border crimes along Myanmar, Bangladesh and Pakistan borders including Line of Control (LoC). Also discuss the role played by various security forces in this regard.       15 marks


​GS Question Paper 4


Total Marks: 250 marks                                                              Time duration: 3 hours.

All questions are compulsory.


SECTION A

1. (a) Discuss the role of ethics and values in enhancing the following three major components of Comprehensive National Power (CNP) viz. human capital, soft power (culture and policies) and social harmony. (150 words)    10 Marks

(b) “Education is not an injunction, it is an effective and pervasive tool for all round development of an individual and social transformation”. Examine the New Education Policy, 2020 (NEP, 2020) in light of the above statement. (150 words) 10 Marks

2. (a) “Hatred is destructive of a person’s wisdom and conscience that can poison a nation’s spirit.’ Do you agree with this view? Justify your answer. (150 words) 10 Marks

(b) What are the main components of emotional intelligence (EI)? Can they be learned? Discuss. (150 words) 10 Marks

3. (а) What teachings of Buddha are most relevant today and why? Discuss. (150 words) 10 Marks

(b) “The will to power exists, but it can be tamed and be guided by rationality and principles of moral duty.’ Examine this statement in the context of international relations. (150 words) 10 Marks

4. (a) Distinguish between laws and rules. Discuss the role of ethics in formulating them (150 words) 10 Marks

(b) A positive attitude is considered to be an essential characteristic of a civil servant who is often required to function under extreme stress. What contributes to a positive attitude in a person? (150 words) 10 Marks

5.(a) What are the main factors responsible for gender inequality in India? Discuss the contribution of Savitribai Phule in this regard. (150 words) 10 Marks

(b) “The current internet expansion has instilled a different set of cultural values which are often in conflict with traditional values.’ Discuss. (150 words)  10 Marks

6. What do each of the following quotations mean to you?

(а) “Condemn none: if you can stretch out a helping hand, do so. If not, fold your hands, bless your brothers, and let them go their own way.” – Swami Vivekanand (150 words) 10 Marks

(b) “The best way to find yourself is to lose yourself in the service of others.” – Mahatma Gandhi (150 words) 10 Marks

(с) “A system of morality which is based on relative emotional values is a mere illusion, a thoroughly vulgar conception which has nothing sound in it and nothing true.” – Socrates (150 words) 10 Marks

SECTION B

7. Rajesh Kumar is a senior public servant, with a reputation of honesty and forthrightness, currently posted in the Finance Ministry as Head of the Budget Division. His department is presently busy in organising the budgetary support to the states, four of which are due to go to the polls within the financial year.

This year’s annual budget had allotted 78300 crores for National Housing Scheme (NHS), a centrally sponsored social housing scheme for the weaker sections of society. 775 crores have been drawn for NHS till June.

The Ministry of Commerce had long been pursuing a case for setting up a Special Economic Zone (SEZ) in a southern state to boost exports. After two years of detailed discussions between the centre and state, the Union Cabinet approved the project in August. Process was initiated to acquire the necessary land.

Eighteen months ago, a leading Public Sector Unit (PSU) had projected the need for setting up a large natural gas processing plant in a northern state for the regional gas grid. The required land is already in possession of the PSU. The gas grid is an essential component of the national energy security strategy. After three rounds of global bidding the project was allotted to an MNC, M/s XYZ Hydrocarbons. The first tranche of payment to the MNC is scheduled to be made in December.

Finance Ministry was asked for a timely allocation of an additional 6000 crores for these two developmental projects. It was decided to recommend re-appropriation of this entire amount from the NHS allocation. The file was forwarded to Budget Department for their comments and further processing. On studying the case file, Rajesh Kumar realized that this re-appropriation may cause inordinate delay in the execution of NHS, a project much publicized in the rallies of senior politicians. Correspondingly, non-availability of finances would cause financial loss in the SEZ and national embarrassment due to delayed payment in an international project.

Rajesh Kumar discussed the matter with his seniors. He was conveyed that this politically sensitive situation needs to be processed immediately. Rajesh Kumar realized that diversion of funds. from NHS could raise difficult questions for the government in the Parliament.

Discuss the following with reference to this case:

Ethical issues involved in re-appropriation of funds from a welfare project to the developmental projects.
Given the need for proper utilization of public funds, discuss the options available to Rajesh Kumar. Is resigning a worthy option? (250 words) 20 Marks

8. The Chairman of Bharat Missiles Ltd (BML) was watching a program on TV wherein the Prime Minister was addressing the nation on the necessity of developing a self-reliant India. He subconsciously nodded in agreement and smiled to himself as he mentally reviewed BML’s journey in the past two decades. BML had admirably progressed from producing first generation anti-tank guided missiles (ATGMS) to designing and producing state of the art ATGM weapon systems that would be the envy of any army. He sighed in reconciliation with his assumptions that the government would probably not alter the status quo of a ban on export of military weaponry.

To his surprise, the very next day he got a telephone call from the Director General, Ministry of Defence, asking him to discuss the modalities of increasing BML production of ATGMS as there is a possibility of exporting the same to a friendly foreign country. The Director General wanted the Chairman to discuss the details with his staff at Delhi next week.

Two days later, at a press conference, the Defence Minister stated that he aims to double the current weapons export levels within five years. This would give an impetus to financing the development and manufacture of indigenous weapons in the country. He also stated that all indigenous arms manufacturing nations have a very good record of international arms trade. As Chairman of BML, what are your views on the following points?

As an arms exporter of a responsible nation like India, what are the ethical issues involved arms trade?
List five ethical factors that would influence the decision to sell arms to foreign governments. (250 words) 20 Marks

9. Rampura, a remote district inhabited by a tribal population, is marked by extreme backwardness and abject poverty. Agriculture is the mainstay of the local population, though it is primarily subsistence due to the very small land holdings. There is insignificant industrial or mining activity. Even the targeted welfare programs have inadequately benefited the tribal population. In this restrictive scenario, the youth has begun to migrate to other states to supplement the family income. Plight of minor girls is that their parents are persuaded by labour contractors to send them to work in the Bt Cotton farms of a nearby state. The soft fingers of the minor girls are well suited for plucking the cotton. The inadequate living and working conditions in these farms have caused serious health issues for the minor girls. NGOS in the districts of domicile and the cotton farms appear to be compromised and have not effectively espoused the twin issues of child labour and development of the area.

You are appointed as the District Collector of Rampura. Identify the ethical issues involved. Which specific steps will you initiate to ameliorate the conditions of minor girls of your district and to improve the over-all economic scenario in the district? (250 words)20

10. You are a municipal commissioner of a large city, having the reputation of a very honest and upright officer. A huge multipurpose mall is under construction in your city in which a large number of daily wage earners are employed. One night, during monsoons, a big chunk of the roof collapsed causing instant death of four labourers including two minors. Many more were seriously injured requiring immediate medical attention. The mishap resulted in a big hue and cry, forcing the government to institute an enquiry.

Your preliminary enquiry has revealed a series of anomalies. The material used for the construction was of poor quality. Despite the approved building plans permitting only one basement, an additional basement has been constructed. This was overlooked during the periodic inspections by the building inspector of. The municipal corporation. In your enquiry, you noticed that the construction of the mall was given the green signal despite encroaching on areas earmarked for a green belt and a slip road in the Zonal Master Plan of the city. The permission to construct the mall was accorded by the previous Municipal Commissioner who is not only your senior and well known to you professionally, but also a good friend.

Prima facie, the case appears to be of a widespread nexus between officials of the Municipal Corporation and the builders. Your colleagues are putting pressure on you to go slow in the enquiry. The builder, who is rich and influential, happens to be a close relative of a powerful minister in the state cabinet. The builder is persuading you to hush up the matter, promising you a fortune to do so. He also hinted that this matter is not resolved at the earliest in his favour there is somebody in his office who is waiting to file a case against you under the POSH Act.

Discuss the ethical issues involved in the case. What are the options available to you in this situation? Explain your selected course of action. (250 words) 20 Marks

11. Parmal is a small but underdeveloped district. It has rocky terrain that is not suitable for agriculture, though some subsistence agriculture is being done on small plots of land. The area receives adequate rainfall and has an irrigation canal flowing through it. Amria, its administrative centre, is a medium sized town. It houses a large district hospital, an Industrial Training Institute and some privately owned skill training centres. It has all the facilities of a district headquarters. A trunk railway line passes approximately 50 kilometres from Amria. Its poor connectivity is a major reason for the absence of any major industry therein. The state government offers a 10 years tax holiday as an incentive to new industry.

In 2010 Anil, an industrialist, decided to take benefits to set up Amria Plastic Works (APW) in Noora village, about 20 km from Amria. While the factory was being built, Anil hired the required key labour and got them trained at the skill training centres at Amria. This act of his made the key personnel very loyal to APW.

APW started production in 2011 with the labour drawn fully from Noora village. The villagers were very happy to get employment near their homes and were motivated by the key personnel to meet the production targets with high quality. APW started making large profits, a sizeable portion of which was used to improve the quality of life in Noora. By 2016, Noora could boast of a greener village and a renovated village temple. Anil liaised with the local MLA to increase the frequency of the bus services to Amria. The government also opened a primary health care centre and primary school at Noora in buildings constructed by APW. APW used its CSR funds to set up women’s self-help groups, subsidize primary education to the village children and procure an ambulance for use by its employees and the needy.

In 2019, there was a minor fire in APW It was quickly extinguished as fire safety protocols were in place in the factory. Investigations revealed that the factory had been using electricity in excess of its authorized capacity. This was soon rectified. The next year, due to a nationwide lockdown, the requirement of production fell for four months. Anil decided that all employees would be paid regularly. He employed them to plant trees and improve the village habitat. APW had developed a reputation of high-quality production and a motivated workforce.

Critically analyse the story of APW and state the ethical issues involved. Do you consider APW as a role model for development of backward areas? Give reasons. (250 words)20

12. Migrant workers have always remained at the socio-economic margins of our society, silently serving as the instrumental labour force of urban economics. The pandemic has brought them into national focus.

On announcement of a countrywide lockdown, a very large number of migrant workers decided to move back from their places of employment to their native villages. The non-availability of transport created its own problems. Added to this was the fear of starvation and inconvenience to their families. This caused, the migrant workers to demand wages and transport facilities for returning to their villages. Their mental agony was accentuated by multiple factors such as a sudden loss of livelihood, possibility of lack of food and inability to assist in harvesting their rabi crop due to not being able to reach home in time. Reports of inadequate response of some districts in providing the essential boarding and lodging arrangements along the way multiplied their fears.

You have leant many lessons from this situation when you were tasked to oversee the functioning of the District Disaster Relief Force in your district. In your opinion what ethical issues arose in the current migrant crisis? What do you understand by an ethical care giving state? What assistance can the civil society render to mitigate 2 the sufferings of migrants in similar situations? (250 words) 20 Marks

 

​​GENERAL Studies Paper 1


Total Marks: 250 marks                                                               Time duration: 3 hours.

There are 20 questions. All questions are compulsory.

Answers to questions no. 1 to 10 (10 marks each) should be in 150 words, whereas answers to questions no. 11 to 20 (15 marks each) should be in 250 words. 

1. Highlight the Central Asian and Greco -Bactrian elements in Gandhara art. 

2. The 1857 Uprising was the culmination the recurrent big and small local rebellions that had occurred in the preceding hundred years of British rule. Elucidate


3. Examine the linkages between 19th centuries ‘Indian Renaissance’ and the emergence of national identity. 

4. Assess the impact of global warming on coral life system with examples. 


5. Discuss the causes of depletion of mangroves and explain their importance in maintaining coastal ecology. 

6. Can the strategy of regional-resource based manufacturing help in promoting employment in India? 


7. Discuss the factors for localization of agro-based food processing industries of North-West India. 

8. What makes Indian society unique in sustaining its culture? Discuss. 


9. “Empowering women is the key to control population growth”. Discuss 

10. What are the challenges to our cultural practices in the name of secularism. 


11. Many voices had strengthened and enriched the nationalist movement during the Gandhian phase. Elaborate 


12. Assess the role of British imperial power in complicating the process of transfer of power during the 1940s. 


13. Explain how the foundations of the modern world were laid by the American and French revolution. 

14. What is water stress? How and why does it differ regionally in India? 

15. How can the mountain ecosystem be restored from the negative impact of development initiatives and tourism? 

16. How is efficient and affordable urban mass transport key to the rapid economic development of India? 


17. How do ocean currents an
d water masses differ in their impacts on marine life and the coastal environment? Give suitable examples? 

18. Do we have cultural pockets of small India all over the nation? Elaborate with examples 

19. What are the continued challenges for women in India against time and space? 


​20. Are we losing our local identity for the global identity? Discuss.



​GENERAL Studies Paper 2

Total Marks: 250 marks                                                                             

Time duration: 3 hours.

There are 20 questions. All questions are compulsory.

Answers to questions no. 1 to 10 (10 marks each) should be in 150 words, whereas answers to questions no. 11 to 20 (15 marks each)should be in 250 words. 


1. Do you think that constitution of India does not accept principle of strict separation of powers rather it is based on the principle of ‘checks and balance’? Explain.


2. “The Central Administration Tribunal which was established for redressal of grievances and complaints by or against central government employees, nowadays is exercising its powers as an independent judicial authority.” Explain.


3. What are the methods used by the Farmers organizations to influence the policy- makers in India and how effective are these methods? 


4. From the resolution of contentious issues regarding distribution of legislative powers by the courts, ‘Principle of Federal Supremacy’ and ‘Harmonious Construction’ have emerged. Explain.


5. What can France learn from the Indian Constitution’s approach to secularism?


6. Despite Consistent experience of High growth, India still goes with the lowest indicators of human development. Examine the issues that make balanced and inclusive development elusive.


7. There is a growing divergence in the relationship between poverty and hunger in India. The shrinking of social expenditure by the government is forcing the poor to spend more on Non- Food essential items squeezing their food – budget.- Elucidate.


8. Implementation of information and Communication Technology (ICT) based Projects / Programmes usually suffers in terms of certain vital factors. Identify these factors, and suggest measures for their effective implementation.


9. ‘The time has come for India and Japan to build a strong contemporary relationship, one involving global and strategic partnership that will have a great significance for Asia and the world as a whole.’ Comment.


10. ‘Too little cash, too much politics, leaves UNESCO fighting for life.’ Discuss the statement in the light of US’ withdrawal and its accusation of the cultural body as being ‘anti-Israel bias’.


11. On what grounds a people’s representative can be disqualified under the Representation of People Act, 1951? Also mention the remedies available to such person against his disqualification.


12. “Parliament’s power to amend the Constitution is a limited power and it cannot be enlarged into absolute power.” In the light of this statement explain whether Parliament under Article 368 of the Constitution can destroy the Basic Structure of the Constitution by expanding its amending power?


13. “The reservation of seats for women in the institutions of local self- government has had a limited impact on the patriarchal character of the Indian Political Process.” Comment.


14. “The Attorney-General is the chief legal adviser and lawyer of the Government of India.” Discuss.


15. Individual Parliamentarian’s role as the national lawmaker is on a decline, which in turn, has adversely impacted the quality of debates and their outcome. Discuss.


16. ‘In the context of neo-liberal paradigm of development planning, multi-level planning is expected to make operations cost effective and remove many implementation blockages.’-Discuss.


17. The need for cooperation among various service sector has been an inherent component of development discourse. Partnership bridges bring the gap among the sectors. It also sets in motion a culture of ‘Collaboration’ and ‘team spirit’. In the light of statements above examine India’s Development process.


18. Performance of welfare schemes that are implemented for vulnerable sections is not so effective due to absence of their awareness and active involvement at all stages of policy process – Discuss.


19. “The long-sustained image of India as a leader of the oppressed and marginalised Nations has disappeared on account of its new found role in the emerging global order” Elaborate


20. “What introduces friction into the ties between India and the United States is that Washington is still unable to find for India a position in its global strategy, which would satisfy India’s National self- esteem and ambitions” Explain with suitable examples.


GENERAL Studies Paper 3


GS Question Paper 2 

Total Marks: 250 marks                                                                          Time duration: 3 hours.

There are 20 questions. All questions are compulsory.

Answers to questions no. 1 to 10 (10 marks each) should be in 150 words, whereas answers to questions no. 11 to 20 (15 marks each)should be in 250 words. 


1. ​Enumerate the indirect taxes which have been subsumed in the Goods and Services Tax (GST) in India. Also, comment on the revenue implications of the GST introduced in India since July 2017. 
2. Do you agree with the view that steady GDP growth and low inflation have left the Indian economy in good shape? Give reasons in support of your arguments. 
3. How far is the Integrated Farming System (IFS) helpful in sustaining agricultural production? 

4. Elaborate on the impact of the National Watershed Project in increasing agricultural production from water-stressed areas. 
5. How was India benefitted from the contributions of Sir M.Visvesvaraya and Dr. M. S. Swaminathan in the fields of water engineering and agricultural science respectively? 
6. What is India’s plan to have its own space station and how will it benefit our space programme? 
7.  Coastal sand mining, whether legal or illegal, poses one of the biggest threats to our environment. Analyse the impact of sand mining along the Indian coasts, citing specific examples. 
8. Vulnerability is an essential element for defining disaster impacts and its threat to people. How and in what ways can vulnerability to disasters be characterized? Discuss different types of vulnerability with reference to disasters. 
9. The banning of ‘Jamaat-e – islaami’ in Jammu and Kashmir brought into focus the role of over-ground workers (OGWs) in assisting terrorist organizations. Examine the role played by OGWs in assisting terrorist organizations in insurgency affected areas. Discuss measures to neutralize the influence of OGWs. 
10. What is the CyberDome Project? Explain how it can be useful in controlling internet crimes in India. 
11. It is argued that the strategy of inclusive growth is intended to meet the objectives of inclusiveness and sustainability together. Comment on this statement. 
12. The public expenditure management is a challenge to the government of India in the context of budget-making during the post-liberalization period. Clarify it.

13. What are the reformative steps taken by the government to make food grain distribution system more effective?
14. Elaborate on the policy taken by the government of India to meet the challenges of the food processing sector. 
15. How is the government of India protecting traditional knowledge of medicine from patenting by pharmaceutical companies?
16. How can biotechnology improve the living standards of farmers? 
17. Define the concept of carrying capacity of an ecosystem as relevant to an environment. Explain how understanding this concept is vital while planning for sustainable development of a region. 
18. Disaster preparedness is the first step in any disaster management process. Explain how hazard zonation mapping will help in disaster mitigation in the case of landslides. 
19. The Indian government has recently strengthened the anti-terrorism laws by amending the unlawful activities (Prevention) Act (UAPA), 1967 and the NIA Act. Analyze the changes in the context of prevailing security environment while discussing the scope and reasons for opposing the UAPA by human rights organizations. 
20. Cross-border movement of insurgents is only one of the several security challenges facing the policing of the border in North-East India. Examine the various challenges currently emanating across the India-Myanmar border. Also, discuss the steps to counter the challenges. 




GS Question Paper 4

Total Marks: 250 marks                                                              Time duration: 3 hours.

All questions are compulsory. 
 
SECTION ‘A’

1.(a) What are the basic principles of public life? Illustrate any three of these with suitable examples. (150 words) 10 Marks

1.(b) What do you understand by the term ‘public servant’? Reflect on the expected role of public servant. (150 words) 10 Marks

2.(a) Effective utilization of public funds is crucial to meet development goals. Critically examine the reasons for under-utilization and mis-utilization of public funds and their implications. (150 words) 10 Marks

2.(b) “Non-performance of duty by a public servant is a form of corruption”. Do you agree with this view? Justify your answer. (150 words) 10 Marks

3.(a) What is meant by the term ‘constitutional morality’? How does one uphold constitutional morality? (150 words) 10 Marks

3.(b) What is meant by ‘crisis of conscience’? How does it manifest itself in the public domain? (150 words) 10 Marks

4.(a) Explain the basic principles of citizens charter movement and bring out its importance. (150 words) 10  Marks

4(b) There is a view that the Official Secrets Act is an obstacle to the implementation of Right to Information Act. Do you agree with the view? Discuss. (150 words) 10 Marks

5.(a) What do you understand by probity in governance? Based on your understanding of the term, suggest measures for ensuring probity in government. (150 words) 10 Marks

5.(b) “Emotional Intelligence is the ability to make your emotions work for you instead of against you”. Do you agree with this view? Discuss. (150 words) 10 Marks 

6. What do each of the following quotations mean to you?

(a) “An unexamined life is not worth living”. – Socrates(150 words) 10 Marks

(b) “A man is but a product of his thoughts. What he thinks he becomes.” – M.K. Gandhi(150 words) 10 Marks

(c) “Where there is righteousness in the heart, there is beauty in the character. When there is beauty in the character, there is harmony in the home. When there is harmony in the home, there is order in the nation. When there is order in the nation, there is peace in the world” – A.P.J. Abdul Kalam (150 words)   10 Marks

SECTION ‘B’

7. You are heading the rescue operations in an area affected by severe natural calamity. Thousands of people are rendered homeless and deprived of food, drinking water and other basic amenities. Rescue work has been disrupted by heavy rainfall and damage to supply routes. The local people are seething with anger against the delayed limited rescue operations. When your team reaches the affected area, the people there heckle and even assault some of the team members . One of your team members is even severely injured. Faced with this crisis, some team members plead with you to call off the operations fearing threats to their life.

In such trying circumstances, what will be your response? Examine the qualities of a public servant which will be required to manage the situation. (250 words) 20 Marks

8. Honesty and uprightness are the hallmarks of a civil servant. Civil servants possessing these qualities are considered as the backbone of any strong organization. In line of duty, they take various decisions, at times some become bonafide mistakes. As long as such decisions are not taken intentionally and do not benefit personally, the officer cannot be said to be guilty. Though such decisions may, at times, lead to unforeseen adverse consequences in the long-term.

In the recent past, a few instances have surfaced wherein civil servants have been implicated for bonafide mistakes.  They have often been prosecuted and even imprisoned. The instances have greatly rattled the moral fibre of the civil servants.

How does this trend affect the functioning of the civil services? What measures can be taken to ensure the honest civil servants are not implicated for the bonafide mistakes on their part? Justify your answer. (250 words) 20 Marks

9. An apparel manufacturing company having a large number of women employees was losing sales due to various factors. The company hired a reputed marketing executive, who increased the volume of sales within a short span of time. However, some unconfirmed reports came up regarding his indulgence in sexual harassment at the workplace.

After sometime a woman employee launched a formal complaint to the management against the marketing executive about sexually harassing her. Faced with the companies’ indifference, in not taking cognizance of her grievances, she lodged an FIR with the police.

Realizing the sensitivity and gravity of the situation, the company called the woman employee to negotiate. In that she was offered a hefty sum of money to withdraw the complaint and the FIR and also give in writing that the marketing executive is not involved in the case.

Identify the ethical issues involved in this case. What options are available to the woman employee? (250 words) 20 Marks

10. In a modern democratic polity, there is a concept of the political executive and permanent executive. Elected people’s representatives form the political executive and bureaucracy forms the permanent executive. Ministers frame policy decisions and bureaucrats execute these. In the initial decades after independence, the relationship between the permanent executive and the political executive were characterized by mutual understanding, respect and cooperation, without encroaching upon each other’s domain.

However, in the subsequent decades, the situation has changed. There are instances of the political executive insisting upon the permanent executive to follow its agenda. Respect for an appreciation of upright bureaucrats has declined. There is an increasing tendency among the political executive to get involved in routine administrative matters such as transfers, posting etc. Under this scenario, there is a difinitive trend towards ‘politicization of bureaucracy’. The rising materialism and acquisitiveness in social life has also adversely impacted upon the ethical values of both the permanent executive and the political executive.

What are the consequences of this ‘politicization of bureaucracy’? Discuss. (250 words)     20 Marks

11. In one of the districts of a frontier state, narcotics menace has been rampant. This has resulted in money laundering, mushrooming of poppy farming, arms smuggling and near stalling of education. The system is on the verge of collapse. The situation has been further worsened by unconfirmed reports that local politicians as well as some senior police officers are providing surreptitious patronage to the drug mafia. At that point of time a woman police officer, known for her skills in handling such situations is appointed as superintendent of police to bring the situation to normalcy.

If you are the same police officer, identify the various dimensions of the crisis. Based on your understanding, suggest measures to deal with the crisis. (250 words) 20 Marks

12. In recent times, there has been an increasing concern in India to develop effective civil service ethics, code of conduct, transparency measures, ethics and integrity systems and anti-corruption agencies. In view of this, there is a need being felt to focus on three specific areas, which are directly relevant to the problems of internalizing integrity and ethics in the civil services. These are as follows:

Anticipating specific threats to ethical standards and integrity in the civil services, Strengthening the ethical competence of civil servants and
Developing administrative processes and practices which promote ethical values and integrity in civil services.

Suggest institutional measures to address the above three issues. (250 words)  20 Marks

 

UPSC CIVIL SERVICES MAINS EXAM 2018


ESSAY PAPER


Write any one of the following essay in 1000-1200 words (125 marks)


​SECTION – A

1. Alternative technologies for a climate change resilient India
2. A good life is one inspired by love and guided by knowledge
3. Poverty anywhere is a threat to prosperity everywhere
4. Management of Indian border disputes – a complex task


Write any one of the following essay in 1000-1200 words (125 marks)

SECTION – B

1. Customary morality cannot be a guide to modern life
2. “The past’ is a permanent dimension of human consciousness and values
3. A people that values its privileges above its principles loses both
4. Reality does not conform to the ideal, but confirms it



General Studies - I


​1. Safeguarding the Indian art heritage is the need of the moment. Comment (10) (150 words)
2. Assess the importance of the accounts of the Chinese and Arab travellers in the reconstruction of the history of India. (10) (150 words)
3. Throw light on the significance of the thoughts of Mahatma Gandhi in the present times. (10) (150 words)
4. Why is Indian Regional Navigational Satellite System (IRNSS) needed? How does it help in navigation? (10 ) (150 words)
5. Why is India taking keen interest in the Arctic region? (10)(150 words)
6. Define mantle plume and explain its role in plate tectonics. (10) (150 words)
7. What are the consequences of spreading of ‘Dead Zones’ on marine ecosystem? (10) (150 words)
8. “Caste system is assuming new identities and associational forms. Hence, caste system cannot be eradicated in India.” Comment. (10) (150 words)
9. ‘Despite implementation of various programmes for eradication of poverty by the government in India, poverty is still existing’. Explain by giving reasons. (10) (150 words)
10. How the Indian concept of secularism different from the western model of secularism? Discuss. (10) (150 words)
11. The Bhakti movement received a remarkable re-orientation with the advent of Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. Discuss. (15) (250 words)
12. Discuss whether formation of new states in recent times is beneficial or not for the economy of India. (15) (250 words)
13. Why indentured labour was taken by the British from India to their colonies? have they been able to preserve their cultural identity over there? (15) (250 words)
14. “The ideal solution of depleting ground water resources in India is water harvesting system.” How can it be made effective in urban areas? (15) (250 words)
15. Defining blue revolution, explain the problems and strategies for pisciculture development in India. (15) (250 words)
16. What is the significance of Industrial Corridors in India? Identifying industrial corridors, explain their main characteristics. (15) (250 words)


17. Mention core strategies for the transformation of aspirational districts in India and explain the nature of convergence, collaboration and competition for its success. (15) (250 words)

18.'Women’s movement in India has not addressed the issues of women of lower social strata.’ Substantiate your view. (15) (250 words)
19. ‘Globalisation is generally said to promote cultural homogenisation but due to this cultural specificities appear to be strengthened in the Indian society.’ Elucidate. (15) (250 words)
20. ‘Communalism arises either due to power struggle or relative deprivation.’ Argue by giving suitable illustrations. (15) (250 words)
​​ 


General Studies - II


1. ​In the light of recent controversy regarding the use of Electronic Voting Machines (EVM), what are the challenges before the Election Commission of India to ensure the trustworthiness of elections in India? (10) (150 words)
2. Whether National Commission for Scheduled Castes (NCSC) can enforce the implementation of constitutional reservation for the Scheduled Castes in the religious minority institutions? Examine. (10) (150 words)
3. Under what circumstances can the Financial Emergency be proclaimed by the President of India? What consequences follow when such a declaration remains in force? (10) (150 words)
4. Why do you think the committees are considered to be useful for parliamentary work? Discuss, in this context, the role of the Estimates Committee. (10) (150 words)
5. “The Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG) has a very vital role to play.” Explain how this is reflected in the method and terms of his appointment as well as the range of powers he can exercise. (10) (150 words)
6. “Policy contradictions among various competing sectors and stakeholders have resulted in inadequate ‘protection and prevention of degradation to environment.” Comment with relevant illustrations.(10) (150 words)
7. Appropriate local community level healthcare intervention is a prerequisite to achieve ‘Health for All’ in India. Explain. (150 words)
8. E-governance in not only about utilization of the power of new technology, but also much about critical importance of the ‘use value’ of information. Explain. (10) (150 words)
9. “India’s relations with Israel have, of late, acquired a depth and diversity, which cannot be rolled back.” Discuss. (10 ) (150 words)

10. A number of outside powers have entrenched themselves in Central Asia, which is a zone of interest to India. Discuss the implications, in this context, of India’s joining the Ashgabat Agreement, 2018. (10)​ (150 words)

11. Whether the Supreme Court Judgement (July 2018) can settle the political tussle between the Lt. Governor and elected government of Delhi? Examine. (15) (250 words)
12. How far do you agree with the view that tribunals curtail the jurisdiction of ordinary courts? In view of the above, discuss the constitutional validity and competency of the tribunals in India. (15) (250 words)
13. Indian and USA are two large democracies. Examine the basic tenets on which the two political systems are based. (15) (250 words)
14. How is the Finance Commission of India constituted? What do you know about the terms of reference of the recently constituted Finance Commission? Discuss. (15) (250 words)
15. Assess the importance of the Panchayat system in India as a part of local government. Apart from government grants, what sources the Panchayats can look out for financing developmental projects? (15) (250 words)
16. Multiplicity of various commissions for the vulnerable sections of the society leads to problems of overlapping jurisdiction and duplication of functions. Is it better to merge all commissions into an umbrella Human Rights Commission? Argue your case. (15) (250 words)
17. How far do you agree with the view that the focus on lack of availability of food as the main cause of hunger takes the attention away from ineffective human development policies in India? (15) (250 words)
18. The Citizen’s Charter is an ideal instrument of organisational transparency and accountability, but it has its own limitations. Identify the limitations and suggest measures for greater effectiveness of the Citizen’s Charters. (15) (250 words)
19. What are the key areas of reform if the WTO has to survive in the present context of ‘Trade War’, especially keeping in mind the interest of India? (15) (250 words)
20. In what ways would the ongoing US-Iran Nuclear Pact Controversy affect the national interest of India? How should India respond to its situation? (15) (250 words)


General Studies III


​1. “Access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy is the sine qua non to achieve Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)”.Comment on the progress made in India in this regard. (150 Words, 10 Marks)
2. Comment on the important changes introduced in respect of the Long term Capital Gains Tax (LCGT) and Dividend Distribution Tax (DDT) in the Union Budget for 2018-2019. (150 Words, 10 Marks)
3. What do you mean by Minimum Support Price (MSP)? How will MSP rescue the farmers from the low income trap? (150 Words, 10 Marks)
4. Examine the role of supermarkets in supply chain management of fruits, vegetables and food items. How do they eliminate number of intermediaries? (150 Words, 10 Marks)
5. Discuss the work of ‘Bose-Einstein Statistics’ done by Prof. Satyendra Nath Bose and show how it revolutionized the field of Physics. (150 Words, 10 Marks)
6. What are the impediments in disposing the huge quantities of discarded solid wastes which are continuously being generated? How do we remove safely the toxic wastes that have been accumulating in our habitable environment? (150 Words, 10 Marks)
7. What is wetland? Explain the Ramsar concept of ‘wise use’ in the context of wetland conservation. Cite two examples of Ramsar sites from India. (150 Words, 10 Marks)
8. Sikkim is the first ‘Organic State’ in India. What are the ecological and economical benefits of Organic State? (150 Words, 10 Marks)
9. The China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) is viewed as a cardinal subset of China’s larger ‘One Belt One Road’ initiative. Give a brief description of CPEC and enumerate the reasons why India has distanced itself from the same. (150 Words, 10 Marks)
10. Left Wing Extremism (LWE) is showing a downward trend, but still affects many parts of the country. Briefly explain the Government of India’s approach to counter the challenges posed by LWE. (150 Words, 10 Marks)
11. How are the principles followed by NITI Aayog different from those followed by the erstwhile planning commission in India?(250 Words, 15 Marks)
12. How would the recent phenomena of protectionism and currency manipulations in world trade affect macroeconomic stability of India? (250 Words, 15 Marks)
13. Assess the role of National Horticulture Mission (NHM) in boosting the production, productivity and income of horticulture farms. How far has it succeeded in increasing the income of farmers? (250 Words, 15 Marks)
14. How has the emphasis on certain crops brought about changes in cropping patterns in recent past? Elaborate the emphasis on millets production and consumption. (250 Words, 15 Marks)
15. Why is there so much activity in the field of biotechnology in our country? How has this activity benefitted the field of biopharma? (250 Words, 15 Marks)
16. With growing energy needs should India keep on expanding its nuclear energy programme? Discuss the facts and fears associated with nuclear energy. (250 Words, 15 Marks)
17. How does biodiversity vary in India? How is the Biological Diversity Act,2002 helpful in conservation of flora and fauna? (250 Words, 15 Marks)
18. Describe various measures taken in India for Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) before and after signing ‘Sendai Framework for DRR (2015-2030)’. How is this framework different from ‘Hyogo Framework for Action, 2005’? (250 Words, 15 Marks)
19. Data security has assumed significant importance in the digitized world due to rising cyber-crimes. The Justice B. N. Srikrishna Committee Report addresses issues related to data security. What, in your view, are the strengths and weaknesses of the Report relating to protection of personal data in cyber space? (250 Words, 15 Marks)
20. India’s proximity to two of the world’s biggest illicit opium-growing states has enhanced her internal security concerns. Explain the linkages between drug trafficking and other illicit activities such as gunrunning, money laundering and human trafficking. What countermeasures should be taken to prevent the same? (250 Words, 15 Marks)


UPSC CIVIL SERVICES MAINS EXAM 2017



ESSAY PAPER


Section-A: 125 Marks

Write any one of the following essay in 1000-1200 words.

1. Farming has lost the ability to be a source of subsistence for majority of farmers in India.
2. Impact of the new economic measures on fiscal ties between the Union and States in India.
3. Destiny of a nation is shaped in its classrooms.
4. Has the Non-Alignment Movement (NAM) lost its relevance in a multipolar world?

Section-B: 125 Marks

Write any one of the following essay in 1000-1200 words.

1. Joy is the simplest form of gratitude.
2. Fulfilment of ‘new woman’ in India is a myth.
3. We may brave human laws but cannot resist natural laws.
4. ‘Social media’ is inherently a selfish medium.



General Studies - I

​Answer following Question no. 1 to 10 in 150 words (10 marks each) and 11 to 20 in 250 words (15 marks each)

1. How do you justify the view that the level of excellence of Gupta numismatic art is not at all noticeable in later times?
2. Clarify how mid-eighteenth century India was beset with the spectre of a fragmented polity.
3.Why did the ‘Moderates’ fail to carry conviction with the nation about their proclaimed ideology and political goals by the end of the nineteenth century?
4. What problems were germane to the decolonization process of Malay Peninsula.
5. How does the Juno Mission of NASA help to understand the origin and evolution of the Earth?
6. In spite of adverse environmental impact, coal mining is still inevitable for development.” Discuss.
7. Mention the advantages of the cultivation of pulse because of which the year 2016 was declared as the International Year of Pulses by the United Nations.
8. How does the cryosphere affect global climate?
9. In the context of diversity of India, can it be said that the regions form cultural units rather than the States? Give reasons with examples for your viewpoint.
10. What are the two major legal initiatives by the State since Independence, addressing discrimination against Scheduled Tribes (STs)?
11. The spirit tolerance and love is not only an interesting feature of Indian society from very early times, but it is also playing an important part at the present. Elaborate.
12. Examine how the decline of traditional artisanal industry in colonial India crippled the rural economy.
13. Highlight the importance of the new objectives that got added to the vision of Indian independence since twenties of the last century.
14. Account for variations in oceanic salinity and discuss its multi-dimensional effects.
15. Petroleum refineries are not necessarily located nearer to crude oil producing areas, particularly in many of the developing countries. Explain its implications.
16. In what way can flood be converted into a sustainable source of irrigation and all-weather inland navigation in India?
17. What characteristics can be assigned to monsoon climate that succeeds in feeding more than 50 percent of the won population residing in Monsoon Asia?
18. The women’s questions arose in modern India as a part of the 19th century social reform movement. What were the major issues and debates concerning women in that period?
19. Distinguish between religiousness/religiosity and communalism giving one example of how the former has got transformed into the latter in independent India.
20. “The growth of cities as I.T. hubs has opened up new avenues employment but has also created new problems. Substantiate this statement with examples.


General Studies - II


​Answer following questions each in 150 words ( each carrying 10 marks.)

1. “The local self-government system in India has not proved to be effective instrument of governance”. Critically examine the statement and give your views to improve the situation.
2. Critically examine the Supreme Court’s judgement on ‘National Judicial Appointments Commission Act, 2014’ with reference to appointment of judges of higher judiciary in India.
3. ‘Simultaneous election to the Lok Sabha and the State Assemblies will limit the amount of time and money spent in electioneering but it will reduce the government’s accountability to the people’ Discuss.
4. How do pressure groups influence Indian political process? Do you agree with this view that informal pressure groups have emerged as powerful than formal pressure groups in recent years?
5. Discuss the role of Public Accounts Committee in establishing accountability of the government to the people.
6. ‘To ensure effective implementation of policies addressing water, sanitation and hygiene needs, the identification of beneficiary segments is to be synchronized with the anticipated outcomes’ Examine the statement in the context of the WASH scheme.
7. Does the Rights of Persons with Disabilities Act, 2016 ensure effective mechanism for empowerment and inclusion of the intended beneficiaries in the society? Discuss
8. Hunger and Poverty are the biggest challenges for good governance in India still today. Evaluate how far successive governments have progressed in dealing with these humongous problems. Suggest measures for improvement.
9. ‘China is using its economic relations and positive trade surplus as tools to develop potential military power status in Asia’, In the light of this statement, discuss its impact on India as her neighbor.
10. What are the main functions of the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC)? Explain different functional commissions attached to it.

Answer following questions each in 250 words (each carrying 15 marks)

11. Explain the salient features of the constitution (One Hundred and First Amendment) Act, 2016. Do you think it is efficacious enough ‘to remove cascading effect of taxes and provide for common national market for goods and services’?
12. Examine the scope of Fundamental Rights in the light of the latest judgement of the Supreme Court on Right to Privacy.
13. The Indian Constitution has provisions for holding joint session of the two houses of the Parliament. Enumerate the occasions when this would normally happen and also the occasions when it cannot, with reasons thereof.
14. To enhance the quality of democracy in India the Election Commission of India has proposed electoral reforms in 2016. What are the suggested reforms and how far are they significant to make democracy successful?
15. Is the National Commission for Women able to strategize and tackle the problems that women face at both public and private spheres? Give reasons in support of your answer.
16.‘The emergence of Self Help Groups(SHGs) in contemporary times points to the slow but steady withdrawal of the state from developmental activities’. Examine the role of the SHGs in developmental activities and the measures taken by the Government of India to promote the SHGs.
17. ‘Poverty Alleviation Programmes in India remain mere show pieces until and unless they are backed by political will’. Discuss with reference to the performance of the major poverty alleviation programmes in India.
18. Initially Civil Services in India were designed to achieve the goals of neutrality and effectiveness, which seems to be lacking in the present context. Do you agree with the view that drastic reforms are required in Civil Services. Comment
19. The question of India’s Energy Security constitutes the most important part of India’s economic progress. Analyze India’s energy policy cooperation with West Asian Countries.
20. Indian Diaspora has an important role to play in South-East Asian countries’ economy and society. Appraise the role of Indian Diaspora in South- East Asia in this context.


General Studies - III


Answer following Question no. 1 to 10 in 150 words (10 marks each) and 11 to 20 in 250 words (15 marks each)


​1. Among several factors for India’s potential growth, savings rate is the most effective one. Do you agree? What are the other factors available for growth potential?
2. Account for the failure of manufacturing sector in achieving the goal of labour-intensive exports rather than capital-intensive exports. Suggest measures for more labour-intensive rather than capital-intensive exports.
3. Examine the developments of Airports in India through Joint Ventures under Public-Private Partnership(PPP) model. What are the challenges faced by the authorities in this regard.
4. Explain various types of revolutions, took place in Agriculture after Independence in India. How these revolutions have helped in poverty alleviation and food security in India?
5. What are the reasons for poor acceptance of cost effective small processing unit? How the food processing unit will be helpful to uplift the socio-economic status of poor farmers?
6. Stem cell therapy is gaining popularity in India to treat a wide variety of medical conditions including Leukaemia, Thalassemia, damaged cornea and several burns. Describe briefly what stem cell therapy is and what advantages it has over other treatments?
7. India has achieved remarkable successes in unmanned space missions including the Chandrayaan and Mars Orbitter Mission, but has not ventured into manned space mission, both in terms of technology and logistics? Explain critically.
8. Not many years ago, river linking was a concept but it is becoming reality in the country. Discuss the advantages of river linking and its possible impact on the environment.
9. Discuss the potential threats of Cyber attack and the security framework to prevent it.
10. The north-eastern region of India has been infested with insurgency for a very long time. Analyze the major reasons for the survival of armed insurgency in this region.
11. One of the intended objectives of Union Budget 2017-18 is to ‘transform, energize and clean India’. Analyse the measures proposed in the Budget 2017-18 to achieve the objective.
12. “Industrial growth rate has lagged behind in the overall growth of Gross-Domestic-Product(GDP) in the post-reform period” Give reasons. How far the recent changes in Industrial Policy are capable of increasing the industrial growth rate?
13. What are the salient features of ‘inclusive growth’? Has India been experiencing such a growth process? Analyze and suggest measures for inclusive growth.
14. What are the major reasons for declining rice and wheat yield in the cropping system? How crop diversification is helpful to stabilize the yield of the crop in the system?
15. How do subsidies affect the cropping pattern, crop diversity and economy of farmers? What is the significance of crop insurance, minimum support price and food processing for small and marginal farmers?
16. Give an account of the growth and development of nuclear science and technology in India. What is the advantage of fast breeder reactor programme in India?
17. ‘Climate Change’ is a global problem. How India will be affected by climate change? How Himalayan and coastal states of India will be affected by climate change?
18. On December 2004, tsumani brought havoc on 14 countries including India. Discuss the factors responsible for occurrence of Tsunami and its effects on life and economy. In the light of guidelines of NDMA (2010) describe the mechanisms for preparedness to reduce the risk during such events.
19. Mob violence is emerging as a serious law and order problem in India. By giving suitable examples, analyze the causes and consequences of such violence.
20. The scourge of terrorism is a grave challenge to national security. What solutions do you suggest to curb this growing menace? What are the major sources of terrorist funding?



UPSC CIVIL SERVICES MAINS EXAM 2016

Essay Compulsory                                                                                                         

Duration: 3 hours                                                                                                  Marks: 250 (125x2)

Write Two Essays, choosing One from each of the Sections A and B, in about 1000-1200 words each.

Section-A (125 marks) - Choose any one Essay

1. If development is not engendered, it is engendered.
2. Need brings greed, if greed increases it spoils bread.
3. Water disputes between States in federal India.
4. Innovation is the key determinant of economic growth and social welfare.

Section-B (125 marks)- Choose any one Essay

1. Cooperative federalism: Myth or reality.
2.Cyberspace and Internet: Blessing or curse to the human civilization in the long run.
3. Near jobless growth in India: An anomaly or an outcome of economic reforms.
4. Digital Economy: A leveler or a source of economic inequality.

 

General Studies Paper – 1 Question Paper

Duration: 3 hours                                                                                         Marks: 250 ( 20x121/2 )

Answer all the following questions. Each question is to be answered in not more than 200 words. Each question carries equal marks.

1. Early Buddhist Stupa-art, while depicting folk motifs and narratives, successfully expounds Buddhist ideals. Elucidate.
2. Krishnadeva Raya, the king of Vijayanagar, was not only an accomplished scholar himself but was a also a great patron of learning and literature. Discuss.
3. Explain how the upraising of 1857 constitutes an important watershed in the evolution of British policies towards colonial India.
4. Discuss the role of women in the freedom struggle especially during the Gandhian phase.
5. Highlight the differences in the approach of Subhash Chandra Bose and Mahatma Gandhi in the struggle for freedom.
6.Has the formation of linguistic states strengthened the cause of Indian unity?
7. The anti-colonial struggles in West Africa were led by the new elite of Western -educated Africans. Examine.
8. To what extent globalisation has influenced the core of cultural diversity in India? Explain.
9. “An essential condition to eradicate poverty is to liberate the poor from the process of deprivation.” Substantiate this statement with suitable examples.
10. Why are the tribals in India referred to as ‘the Scheduled Tribes’? Indicate the major provisions enshrined in the Constitution of India for their upliftment.
11. With a brief background of quality of urban life in India, introduce the objectives and strategy of the ‘Smart City Programme.”
12. What is the basis of regionalism? Is it that unequal distribution of benefits of development on regional basis eventually promotes regionalism? Substantiate your answer.
13. Discuss the concept of air mass and explain its role in macro-climatic changes.
14. “The Himalayas are highly prone to landslides.”Discuss the causes and suggest suitable measures of mitigation.
15. The effective management of land and water resources will drastically reduce the human miseries. Explain.
16. South China Sea has assumed great geopolitical significance in the present context. Comment.
17. Major cities of India are becoming vulnerable to flood conditions. Discuss.
18. Present an account of the Indus Water Treaty and examine its ecological, economic and political implications in the context of changing bilateral relations.
19. Enumerate the problems and prospects of inland water transport in India.
20. In what way micro-watershed development projects help in water conservation in drought-prone and semi-arid regions of India?

General Studies (Paper-2)

Duration: 3 hours                                                                                         Marks: 250 ( 20x121/2 )

Answer all the following questions. Each question is to be answered in not more than 200 words. Each question carries equal marks.

1. Discuss the essentials of the 69th Constitutional Amendment Act and anomalies, if any,  that have led to recent reported conflicts between the elected representatives and the institution of the Lieutenant Governor in the administration of Delhi. Do you think that this will give rise to a new trend in the functioning of the Indian federal politics?


2. To what extent is Article 370 of the Indian Constitution, bearing marginal note “temporary provision with respect to the State of Jammu and Kashmir”, temporary? Discuss the future prospects of this provision in the context of Indian polity.


3. “The Indian party system is passing through a phase of transition which looks to be full of contradictions and paradoxes.” Discuss.


4. Exercise of CAG’s powers in relation to the accounts of the Union and the States is derived from Article 149 of the Indian Constitution. Discuss whether audit of the Government’s policy implementation could amount to overstepping its own (CAG) jurisdiction.


5. Discuss each adjective attached to the word ‘Republic’ in the ‘Preamble’. Are they defendable in the present circumstances?


6. What was held in the Coelho case? In this context, can you say that judicial review is of key importance amongst the basic features of the Constitution?


7. Did the Government of India Act, 1935 lay down a federal constitution? Discuss.


8. What is quasi judicial body? Explain with the help of concrete examples.


9. Professor Amartya Sen has advocated important reforms in the realms of primary education and primary health care. What are your suggestions to improve their status and performance?


10. “In the Indian governance system, the role of non-state actors has been only marginal.” Critically examine this statement.


11. “Effectiveness of the government system at various levels and people’s participation in the governance system are inter-dependent/” Discuss their relationship in the context of India.


12. In the integrity index of Transparency International, India stands very low. Discuss briefly the legal, political, social and cultural factors that have caused the decline of public morality in India.


13. Has the Indian governmental system responded adequately to the demands of Liberalization, Privatization and Globalization started in 1991? What can the government do to be responsive to this important change?


14. “Traditional bureaucratic structure and culture have hampered the process of socio-economic development in India.” Comment.


15. Examine the main provisions of the National Child Policy and throw light on the status of its implementation.


16. “Demographic Dividend in India will remain only theoretical unless our manpower becomes more educated, aware, skilled and creative.” What measures have been taken by the government to enhance the capacity of our population to be more productive and employable?


17. “The broader aims and objectives of WTO are to manage and promote international trade in the era of globalization. But the Doha round of negotiations seem doomed due to differences between the developed and the developing countries.” Discuss in the Indian perspective.


18. Evaluate the economic and strategic dimensions of India’s Look East Policy in the context of the post Cold War international scenario.


19. “Increasing cross-border terrorist attacks in India and growing interference in the internal affairs of member-states by Pakistan are not conducive for the future of SAARC (South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation).” Explain with suitable examples.


20What are the aims and objectives of the McBride Commission of the UNESCO? What is India’s position on these?

 

General Studies III

Duration: 3 hours                                                                                                            Marks: 250

Answer all the following questions. Each question is to be answered in not more than 200 words. Each question carries equal marks.

1. How globalization has led to the reduction of employment in the formal sector of the Indian economy? Is increased informalization detrimental to the development of the country?


2. Women empowerment in India needs gender budgeting. What are the requirements and status of gender budgeting in the Indian context?


3. Pradhan Mantri Jan-Dhan Yojana (PMJDY) is necessary for bringing unbanked to the institutional finance fold. Do you agree with this for financial inclusion of the poorer section of the Indian society? Give arguments to justify your opinion.


4. What are ‘Smart Cities? Examine their relevance for urban development in India. Will it increase rural-urban differences? Give arguments for Smart Villages’ in the light of PURA and RURBAN Mission.


5. Justify the need for FDI for the development of the Indian economy. Why there is gap between MOUs signed and actual FDIs? Suggest remedial steps to be taken for increasing actual FDIs in India.


6. Comment on the challenges for inclusive growth which include careless and useless manpower in the Indian context. Suggest measures to be taken for facing these challenges.


7. What is water-use efficiency? Describe the role of micro-irrigation in increasing the water-use efficiency.


8. What is allelopathy? Discuss its role in major cropping systems of irrigated agriculture.


9. Discuss the role of land reforms in agricultural development. Identify the factors that were responsible for the success of land reforms in India.


10. Given the vulnerability of Indian agriculture to vagaries of nature, discuss the need for crop insurance and bring out the salient features of the Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana (PMFBY)


11. Give an account of the current status and the targets to be achieved pertaining to renewable energy sources in the country. Discuss in brief the importance of National Programme on Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs).


12. Discuss India’s achievements in the field of Space Science and Technology. How the application of this technology has helped India in its socio-economic development?


13. Why is nanotechnology one of the key technologies of the 21st century? Describe the salient features of Indian Government’s Mission on Nanoscience and Technology and the scope of its application in the development process of the country.


14. Rehabilitation of human settlements is one of the important environmental impacts which always attracts controversy while planning major projects. Discuss the measures suggested for mitigation of this impact while proposing major developmental projects.


15. The frequency of urban floods due to high intensity rainfall is increasing over the years. Discussing the reasons for urban floods. highlight the mechanisms for preparedness to reduce the risk during such events.


16. With reference to National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) guidelines, discuss the measures to be adopted to mitigate the impact of the recent incidents of cloudbursts in many places of Uttarakhand.


17. The terms ‘Hot Pursuit’ and ‘Surgical Strikes’ are often used in connection with armed action against terrorist attacks. Discuss the strategic impact of such actions.


18. “Terrorism is emerging as a competitive industry over the last few decades.” Analyse the above statement.


19. Border management is a complex task due to difficult terrain and hostile relations with some countries. Elucidate the challenges and strategies for effective border management.


20. Use of Internet and social media by non-state actors for subversive activities is a major concern. How these have have misused in the recent past? Suggest effective guidelines to curb the above threat.

 

General Studies IV

Duration: 3 hours                                                                                                            Marks: 250

Answer all the following questions.

                                                            Section A

1. (a) Explain how ethics contributes to social and human well-being.       (150 words) 10 marks

    (b) Why should impartiality and non-partisanship be considered as foundational values in public   services, especially in the present day socio-political context? Illustrate your answer with examples.    (150 words) 10

2. (a) What do you understand by the terms ‘governance’, ‘good governance’ and ‘ethical governance’?         (150 words) 10

(b) Discuss Mahatma Gandhi’s concept of seven sins.                                                (150 words) 10

3. (a) Analyse John rawls’s concept of social justice in the Indian Context.              (150 word) 10 marks

(b) Discuss the Public Services Code as recommended by the 2nd Administrative Refroms Commission.  (150 words) 10 marks

4. (a) “Corruption causes misuse of government treasury, administrative inefficiency and obstruction in the path of national development.” Discuss Kautilya’s views.                     (150 words)    10 marks.

(b) How could social influence and persuasion contribute to the success of Swachh Bharat Abhiyan?  (150 words)   10 marks.

5. Law and ethics are considered to be the two tools for controlling human conduct so as to make it conducive to civilized social existence.

(a) Discuss how they achieve this objective.

(b) Giving examples, show how the two differ in their approaches. (150 words)       10 marks.

6. Our attitudes towards life, work, other people and society are generally shaped unconsciously by the family and the social surroundings in which we grow up. Some of these unconsciously acquired attitudes and values are often undesirable in the citizens of a modern democratic and egalitarian society.

(a) Discuss such undesirable values prevalent in Today’s educated Indians

(b) How can such undesirable attitudes be changed and socio ethical values considered necessary in public services be cultivated in the aspiring and serving civil servants?        (150 words)  10 marks.

7. Anger is a harmful negative emotion. It is injurious to both personal life and work life.

(a) Discuss how it leads to negative emotions and undesirable behaviors.

(b) How can hit be managed and controlled?             (150 words) 10 marks

8. “Max Webar said that it is not wise to apply to public administration the sort of moral and ethical norms we apply to matters of personal conscience. It is important to realize that the state bureaucracy might possess its own independent bureaucratic morality.” Critically analyse this statement.                          (150 words)  10 marks.

                                                                               Section B

9. A fresh engineering graduate gets a job in a prestigious chemical industry. She likes the work. The salary is also good. However, after a few months she accidentally discovers that a highly toxic waste is being secretly discharged into a river nearby. This is causing health problems to the villagers downstream who depend on the river for their water needs. She is perturbed and mentions her concern to her colleagues who have been with the company for longer periods. They advise her to keep quite as anyone who mentions the topic is summarily dismissed. She cannot risk losing her job as she is the sole bread-winner for her family and has to support her ailing parents and siblings. At first, she thinks that if her seniors are keeping quiet, why should she stick out her neck. But her conscience pricks her to do something to save the river and the people who depend upon it. At heart she feels that the advice of silence given by her friends is not correct though she cannot give reasons for it. She thinks you are a wise person and seeks your advice.

(a) What arguments can you advance to show her that keeping quiet is not morally right?

(b) What course of action would you advise her to adopt and why? (250 words)  20 marks

10. Land needed for mining, dams and other large-scale projects is acquired mostly from Adivasis, hill dwellers and rural communities. The displaced persons are paid monetary compensation as per the legal provisions. However, the payment is often tardy. In any case, hit cannot sustain the displaced families for long. These people do not possess marketable skills to engage in some other accusation. They end up as low paid migrant laborers. Moreover, their developments go to industries, industrialists and urban communities whereas the costs are passed on to these poor helpless people. This unjust distribution of costs and benefits is unethical. Suppose you have been entrusted with the task of drafting a better compensation-cum-rehabilitation policy for such displaced persons, how would you approach the problem and what would be the main elements of your suggested policy?     (250 words)  20 marks.

11. Suppose you are an officer in-charge of implementing a social service scheme to provide support to old and destitute women. An old and illiterate woman comes to you to avail the benefits of the scheme. However, she has no documents to show that she fulfills the eligibility criteria. But after meeting her and listening to her you feel that she certainly needs support. Your enquirers also show that she is really destitute and living in a pitiable condition. You are in a dilemma as to what to do. Putting her under the scheme without necessary documents would clearly be violation of rules. But denying her the support would be cruel and inhuman. a) Can you think of a rational way to resolve this dilemma? b) Give your reasons for it.              (250 words)  20 marks.

12. You are a young, aspiring and sincere employee in a Government office working as an assistant to the director of your department. Since you have joined recently, you need to lean and progress. Luckily your superior is very kind and ready to train you for your job. He is a very intelligent and well-informed person having knowledge of various departments. In short, you respect your boss and are looking forward to lean a lot from him. Since you have good tuning with the boss, he started depending on you. One day due to ill health he invited you at his place for finishing some urgent work. You reached his house and before you could ring the bell you heard shouting noises. You waited for a while. After entering the house the boss greeted you and explained the work. But you were constantly disturbed by the crying of a woman. At last, you inquired with the boss but his answer did not satisfy you. Next day, you were compelled to inquire further in the office and found out that his behavior is very bad at home with his wife. He also beats up bit wife. His wife is not well educated and is a simple woman in comparison to her husband. you see that though your boss is a nice person in the office, he is engaged in domestic violence at home. In such a situation, you are left with the following options. Analyse each option with its consequences.

(a) just ignore thinking about it because it is their personal matter.

(b) Report the case to the appropriate authority.

(c) Your own innovative approach towards the situation.          (250 words)   20 marks.

13. ABC Ltd. Is a large transnational company having diversified business activities with a huge shareholder base. The company is continuously expanding the generating employment. The company, in its expansion and diversification programme, decides to establish a new plant at Vikaspuri, an area which is underdeveloped. The new plant is designed to use energy efficient technology that will help the company to save production cost by 20%. The company’s decision goes well with the Government policy of attracting investment to develop such underdeveloped regions. The government has also announced tax holiday for five years for the companies that invest in underdeveloped areas. However, the new plant may bring chaos for the inhabitants of Vikaspuri region, which is otherwise tranquil. The new plant may result in increased cost of living, aliens migrating to the region, disturbing the social and economic order. The company sensing the possible protest tried to educate the people of Vikaspuri region and public in general that how its Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) policy would help overcome the likely difficulties of the residents of Vikaspuri region. In spite of this the protests begin and some of the residents decided to approach the judiciary as their plea before the Government did not yield any result.

a) Identify the issues involved in the case

 b) What can be suggested to satisfy the company’s goal and to address the residents’ concern?                                    (300 words)  25 marks.

14. Saraswati was a successful IT professional in USA. Moved by the patriotic sense of doing something for the country she returned to India. Together with some other like minded friends, she formed an NGO to build a school for a poor rural community. The objective of the school was to provide the best quality modern education at a nominal cost. She soon discovered that she has to seek permission from a number of Government agencies. The rules and procedures were quite confusing and cumbersome. What frustrated her most was delays, callous attitude of officials and constant demand for bribes. Her experience and the experience of many others like her has deterred people from taking up social service projects. A measure of Government control over voluntary social work is necessary. But it should not be exercised in a coercive a corrupt manner. What measures can you suggest to ensure that due control is exercised but well meaning, honest NGO efforts are not thwarted?        (300 words)  25 marks.




                                                  UPSC CIVIL SERVICES MAINS EXAM 2015


Duration: 3 hours                                                                                                  Marks: 250 (125x2)

Write Two Essays, choosing One from each of the Sections A and B, in about 1000-1200 words each.

​Section-A: 125 Marks

Write any one of the following essay in 1000-1200 words.

1. Lending hands to someone is better than giving a dole.
2. Quick but steady wins the race.
3. Character of an institution is reflected in its leader.
4. Education without values, as useful as it is, seems rather to make a man more clever devil.

Section-B: 125 Marks

Write any one of the following essay in 1000-1200 words.

1. Technology cannot replace manpower.
2. Crisis faced in India – moral or economic.
3. Dreams which should not let India sleep.
4. Can capitalism bring inclusive growth?



2015 General Studies I 


Duration: 3 hours; Maximum Marks: 250                                                  

All the questions too compulsory.

Each Question is worth 12.5 marks and maximum word limit is 200. But content of the answer is more important than its length.

1. The ancient civilization in Indian sub-continent differed from those of Egypt, Mesopotamia and Greece in that its culture and traditions have been preserved without a breakdown to the present day. Comment.

2. Mesolithic rock cut architecture of India not only reflects the cultural life of the times but also a fine aesthetic sense comparable to modem painting. Critically evaluate this comment.

3. How different would have been the achievement of Indian independence without Mahatma Gandhi? Discuss.

4. Mahatma Gandhi and Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, despite having divergent approaches and strategies, had a common goal of amelioration of the downtrodden. Elucidate.

5. It would have been difficult for the Constituent Assembly to complete its historic task of drafting the Constitution for Independent India in just three years but for the experience gained with the Government of India Act, 1935. Discuss.

6. Why did the industrial revolution first occur in England? Discuss the quality of life of the people there during the industrialization. How does it compare with that in India at present?

7. To what extent can Germany be held responsible for causing the two World Wars? Discuss critically

8. Describe any four cultural elements of diversity in India and rate their relative significance in building a national identity.

9. Critically examine whether growing population is the cause of poverty OR poverty is the main cause of population increase in India.

10. How do you explain the statistics that show that the sex ratio in Tribes in India is more favourable to women than the sex ratio among Scheduled Castes?

11. Discuss the changes in the trends of labour migration within and outside India in the last four decades.

12. Discuss the positive and negative effects of globalization on women in India.

13. Debate the issue of whether and how contemporary movements for assertion of Dalit identity work towards annihilation of caste.

14. Explain the factors responsible for the origin of ocean currents. How do they influence regional climates, fishing and navigation?

15. Mumbai, Delhi and Kolkata are the three mega cities of the country but the air pollution is much more serious problem in Delhi as compared to the other two. Why is this so?

16. India is well endowed with fresh water resources. Critically examine why it still suffers from water scarcity.

17. The states of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand are reaching the limits of their ecological carrying capacity due to tourism. Critically evaluate.

18. How far do you agree that the behavior of the Indian monsoon has been changing due to humanizing landscapes? Discuss.

19. Smart cities in India cannot sustain without smart villages. Discuss this statement in the backdrop of rural urban integration.

20. What are the economic significances of discovery of oil in Arctic Sea and its possible environmental consequences?

2015 General Studies II 

Answer the following questions in not more than 200 words each. Contents of the answers are more important than their length. All questions carry equal marks.

Note: Each question carries 12.5 Marks (12.5×20 = 200 Marks )

1. Discuss the possible factors that inhibit India from enacting for its citizen a uniform civil code as provided for in the Directive Principles of State Policy.


2. The concept of cooperative federalism has been increasingly emphasised in recent years. Highlight the drawbacks in the existing structure and extent to which cooperative federalism would answer the shortcomings.


3. In the absence of well – educated and organised local level government system, Panchayats and Samitis have remained mainly political institutions and not effective instrument of governance. Critically Discuss.


4. Khap panchayats have been in the news for functioning as extra – constitutional authorities, often delivering pronouncements amounting to human right violations. Discuss critically the actions taken by the legislative, executive and judiciary to set the things right in this regard.


5. Resorting to ordinances has always raised concern on violation of the spirit of separation of power doctrine. While noting the rationales justifying the power to promulgate, analyse whether the decision of the Supreme Court on the issue have further facilitated to resorting to this power. Should the power to promulgate the ordinances be repealed?


6. What are the major changes brought in the Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1966 through the recent ordinance promulgated by the President? How far will it improve India’s dispute resolution mechanism? Discuss.


7. Does the right to clean environment entail legal regulation on burning crackers during Diwali? Discus in the light of Article 21 of Indian Constitution and judgements of the apex in this regard.


8. Examine critically the recent changes in the rule governing foreign funding of NGOs under the Foreign Contribution (Regulation) Act (FCRA), 1976.


9. The Self Help Group (SHG) Bank Linkage Program (SBLP), which is India’s own innovation , has proved to be one of the most effective poverty alleviation and women empowerment programme. Elucidate.


10. How can be the role of NGOs be strengthened in India for development works relating to protection of the Environment? Discuss throwing light on the major constraints.


11. The quality of higher education in India requires major improvement to make it internationally competitive. Do you think that the entry of foreign educational institutions would help improve the quality of technical and higher education in the country. Discuss.


12. Public health system has limitation in providing universal health coverage. Do you think that private sector can help in bridging the gap? What other viable alternatives do you suggest?


13. Though there have been several different estimates of poverty in India, all indicate reduction in poverty over time. Do you agree. Critically examine with reference to urban and rural poverty indicators.


14. In the light of Satyam Scandal (2009), discuss the changes brought in the corporate governance to ensure transparency and accountability.


15. If amendment bill to the Whistleblowers Protection Act 2011 tabled in the Parliament is passed, there maybe no on left to protect. Critically Evaluate.


16. For achieving the desired objectives,it is necessary to ensure that the regulatory institutions remain independent and autonomous. Discuss in the light of experiences in recent past.


17. Increasing interest of India in Africa has its pro and cons. Critically Examine.


18. Discuss the impediments India is facing in its pursuit of a permanent seat in UNSC.


19. Project ‘Mausam’ is considered a unique foreign policy initiative of Indian government to improve relationship wit its neighbours. Does the project have a strategic dimension? Discuss


20. Terrorist activities and mutual distrust have clouded India – Pakistan relations. To what extent the use of soft power like sports and cultural exchange could help generate goodwill between the two countries. Discuss with suitable examples.

 

2015 General Studies III 

Instructions: Answer the following questions in not more than 200 words each. Contents of the answers are more important than their length. All questions carry equal marks.

Each question carries 12.5 Marks (12.5×20 = 200 Marks )

1. The nature of economic growth in India in recent times is often described as a jobless growth. Do you agree with this view? Give arguments in favour of your answer.


2. Livestock rearing has a big potential for providing non- farm employment and income in rural areas. Discuss suggesting suitable measures to promote this sector in India.


3. In the view of the declining average size of land holdings in India which has made agriculture non – viable for a majority of farmers should contract farming and land leasing be promoted in agriculture? Critically evaluate the pros and cons.


4. How can the Digital India program help farmers to improve farm productivity and income? What step has the government taken in this regard?


5. In what way could replacement of price subsidy with direct benefit Transfer (DBT) change the scenario of subsidies in India? Discuss.


6. What are the impediments in marketing and supply chain management in developing the food processing industry in India? Can e-commerce help in overcoming this bottleneck?


7. Craze for gold in Indian has led to surge in import of gold in recent years and put pressure on balance of payments and external value of rupee. In view of this, examine the merits of Gold Monetization scheme.


8. “Success of make in India program depends on the success of Skill India programme and radical labour reforms.” Discuss with logical arguments.


9. To what factors can be the recent dramatic fall in equipment cost and tariff of solar energy be attributed? What implications does the trend have for thermal power producers and related industry?


10. There is a clear acknowledgement that Special Economic Zones (SEZs) are a tool of industrial development, manufacturing and exports. Recognising this potential, the whole instrumentality of SEZs require augmentation. Discuss

the issue plaguing the success of SEZs with respect to taxation, governing laws and administration.


11. What do you understand by “Standard Positioning System” and “Precision positioning system” in the GPS era? Discuss the advantage India perceives from its ambitious IRNSS programme employing just seven satellites.


12. What are the areas of prohibitive labour that can be sustainably managed by robots? Discuss the initiatives that can propel the research in premier research institutes for substantive and gainful innovation.


13. Discuss the advantage and security implication of cloud hosting of servers vis-a-vis in house machine based hosting for government business.


14. India’s Traditional Knowledge Digital Library (TKDL) which has a database containing formatted information on more than 2 million medicinal formulations is proving a powerful weapon in country’s fight against erroneous patents. Discuss the pro and cons of making the database available publicly available under open source licensing.


15. Discuss the Namami Gange and National Mission for Clean Ganga (NMCG) programmes and causes of mixed results from the previous schemes. What quantum leaps can help preserve the river Ganga better than incremental inputs?


16. The frequency of earthquakes appears to have increased in the Indian subcontinent. However, India’s preparedness for mitigating their impact has significant gaps. Discuss various aspects.


17. Human right activists constantly highlight the fact that the Armed forces (Special Powers) Act, 1958 (AFSPA) is a draconian act leading to cases of human right abuses by security forces. What sections of AFSPA are opposed by the activists. Critically evaluate the requirement with reference to the view held by Apex Court.


18. Religious indoctrination via social media has resulted in Indian youth joining the ISIS. What is ISIS and its mission? How can ISIS be dangerous to the internal security of our country.


19. The persisting drives of the government for development of large industries in backward areas have resulted in isolating the tribal population and the farmers who face multiple displacements. With Malkangiri and Naxalbari foci, discuss the corrective strategies needed to win the Left Wing Extremism (LWE) doctrine affected citizens back into mainstream of social and economic growth.


20. Considering the threats cyberspace poses for the country, India needs a “Digital Armed Forces” to prevent crimes. Critically evaluate the National Cyber Security Policy, 2013 outlining the challenges perceived in its effective implementation.

 

2015 General Studies IV

Answer questions in NOT MORE than the word limit specified for each in the parenthesis. Content of the answer in more important than its length.

                                                                                     SECTION-A


Q1. (a) What in meant by ‘environmental ethics? Why is it important to study? Discuss any one environmental issue from the viewpoint of environmental ethics. (150 words) (10)

(b) Differentiate between the following (200 words)  (10)

(1) Law and Ethics

(2) Ethical management and Management of ethics

(3) Discrimination and Preferential treatment

(4) Personal ethics and Professional ethics

Q2. Given are two quotations of moral thinkers/philosophers. For each of these, bring out what it means to you in the present context

(a) “The weak can never forgive; forgiveness is the attribute of the strong.’  (150 words) (10)

(b) ‘We can easily forgive a child who is afraid of the dark; the real tragedy of life is when men are afraid of the light.’ (150 words) (10)

Q3. (a) “A mere compliance with law is not enough, the public servant also have to have a well developed sensibility to ethical issues for effective discharge of duties” Do you agree? Explain with the help of two examples where (i) an act is ethically right, but not legally and (ii) an act is legally right, but not ethically. (150 words) (10)

(b) How do the virtues of trustworthiness and fortitude get manifested in public service? Explain with examples (150 words)  (10)

 Q4. (a) Social values are more important than economic values. Discuss the above statement with examples in the context of inclusive growth of a nation. (150 words)  (10)

(b) Some recent developments such as introduction of RTI Act, media and judicial activism, etc. are proving helpful in bringing about greater transparency and accountability in the functioning of the government. However, it is also being observed that at times the mechanisms are misused. Another negative effect is that the officers are now afraid to take prompt decisions. Analyse the situation in detail and suggest how the dichotomy can be resolved. Suggest how these negative impacts can be minimised. (150 words)  (10)

 
Q5. Two different kinds of attitudes exhibited by public servants towards their work have been identified as bureaucratic attitude and the democratic attitude.

(a) Distinguish between these two terms and write their merits and demerits.

(b) Is it possible to balance the two too create a better administration for the faster development of our country?  (150 words) (10)

Q6. Today we find that in-spite of various measures of prescribing codes of conduct, setting up vigilance cells/commissions, RTI, active media and strengthening of legal mechanism, corrupt practices are not coming under control.

(a) Evaluate the effectiveness of these measures with justifications.

(b) Suggest more effective strategies to tackle this menace. (150 words) (10)

Q7. At the international level, bilateral relations between most nations are governed on the policy of promoting one’s own national interest without any regard for the interest of other nations. This lead to conflicts and tension between the nations. How can ethical consideration help resolve such tensions? Discuss with specific examples. (150 words) (10)

 Q8. Public servants are likely to confront with the issues of “Conflict of Interest”. What do you understand by the term “Conflict of Interest” and how does it manifest in the decision making by public servants? If faced with the conflict of interest situation how would you resolve it? Explain with the help of examples.  (150 words) (10)


                                                                                SECTION – B

 Q9. A private company is known for its efficiency, transparency and employee welfare. The company though owned by a private individual has a cooperative character where employees feel a sense of ownership. The company employs nearly 700 personnel and they have voluntarily decided not to form union.

One day suddenly in the morning, about 40 men belonging to political party gate crashed into the factory demanding jobs in the factory. They threatened the management and employees, and also used foul language. The employees feel demoralized. It was clear that those people who gate crashed wanted to be on the payroll of the company as well as continue as the volunteers/members of the party.

The company maintains high standards in integrity and does not extend favours to civil administration that also includes law enforcement agency. Such incident occur in public sector also.

(a) Assume you are the CEO of the company. What would you do to diffuse the volatile situation on the date of gate crashing with the violent mob sitting inside the company premises?

(b) What can be the long term solution to the issue discussed in the case?

(c) Every solution/action that you suggest will have a negative and a positive impact on you as (CEO), the employees and the performance of the employees. Analyse the consequences of each of your suggested actions. (250 Words) (20)

 
Q10. You are the Sarpanch of a Panchayat. There is a primary school run by the government in your area. Midday meals are provided to children attending the school. The headmaster has now appointed a new cook in the school to prepare the meals. However, when it is found that cook is from Dalit community, almost half of the children belonging to higher castes are not allowed to take meals by their parents. Consequently the attendance in the schools falls sharply. This could result in the possibility of discontinuation of midday meal scheme, thereafter of teaching staff and subsequent closing down the school.

(a) Discuss some feasible strategies to overcome the conflict and to create right ambiance.

(b) What should be the responsibilities of different social segments and agencies to create positive social ambiance for accepting such changes?  (250 Words) (20)

Q11. One of the scientists working in the R&D laboratory of a major pharmaceutical company discovers that one of the company’s bestselling veterinary drugs has the potential to cure a currently incurable liver disease which is prevalent in tribal areas. However, developing a variant of the drug suitable for human being entailed a lot of research and development having a huge expenditure to the extent of Rs. 50 crores. It was unlikely that company would recover the cost as the disease was rampant only in poverty stricken areas having very little market otherwise.

If you were the CEO, then

(a) Identify the various actions that you could take

(b) Evaluate the pros and cons of each of your actions (250 words)  (20)

 
Q12. There is a disaster prone state having frequent landslides, forest fires, cloudbursts, flash floods and earthquakes, etc. Some of these are seasonal and often unpredictable. The magnitude of the disaster is always unanticipated. During one of the seasons a cloudburst caused a devastating floods and landslides leading to high casualties. There was major damage to infrastructure like roads, bridges and power generating units. This led to more than 100000 pilgrims, tourist and other locals trapped across different routes and locations. The people trapped in your area of responsibility includes senior citizens, patients in hospitals, women and children, hiker, tourist, ruling parties, regional presidents along with his family, additional chief secretary of the neighboring state and prisoners in jail.

As a civil services officer of the state, what would be the order in which you would rescue these people and why? Give Justifications (200 Words) (20)

Q13. You are heading a district administration in a particular department. Your senior officer calls you from the State Headquarters and tells you that a plot in Rampur village is to have a building constructed on it for a school. A visit is scheduled during which he will visit the site along with the chief engineer and the senior architect. He wants you to check out all the papers relating to it and ensure that the visit is properly arranged. You examine the file which relates to the period before you joined the department. The land was acquired for the local panchayat at a nominal cost and the papers showed that clearance certificates are available for the two of the three authorities who have to certify the site’s suitability. There is no certification by the architect available on file. You decide to visit Rampur to ensure that all is in the order as stated on file. When you visit Rampur, you find that the plot under reference is a part of Thakurgarh fort and that the walls, ramparts, etc., are running across it. The fort is well away from the main village, therefore a school here will be a serious inconvenience for the children. However, the area near the village has potential to expand into a larger residential area. The development charges on the existing plot, at the fort, will be very high and question of heritage site has not been addressed. Moreover, the Sarpanch, at the time of acquisition of the land, was a relative of your predecessor. The whole transaction appears to have been done with some vested interest.

(a) List the likely vested interest of the concerned parties.

(b) Some of the options for action available to you are listed below. Discuss the merits and demerits of each of the options:

(i) You can await the visit of the superior officer and let him take a decision.

(ii) You can seek his advice in writing or on phone.

(iii) You can consult your predecessor/ colleagues, etc, and then decide what to do.

(iv) You can find out if any alternate plot can be got in exchange and then send a comprehensive written report.

Can you suggest any other option with proper justifications? (250 Words) (25)


Q14. You are recently posted as district development officer of a district. Shortly thereafter you found that there is considerable tension in the rural areas of your district on the issue of sending girls to schools.

The elders of the village feel that many problems have come up because girls are being educated and they are stepping out of the safe environment of the household. They are the view that the girls should be quickly married off with minimum education. The girls are also competing for jobs after education, which have traditionally remained in boys’ exclusive domain, adding to unemployment amongst male population.

The younger generation feels that in the present era, girls should have equal opportunities for education and employment, and other means of livelihood. The entire locality is divided between sexes in both generations. You come to know that in Panchayat or in other local bodies or even in busy crosswords, the issue is being acrimoniously debated.

One day you are informed that an unpleasant incident has taken place. Some girls were molested, when they were en route to schools. The incident led to clashes between several groups and a law and order problem has arisen. The elder after heated discussion have taken a joint decision not to allow girls to go to school and to socially boycott all such families, which do not follow their dictate.

(a) What steps would you take to ensure girls’ safety without disrupting their education?

(b) How would you manage and mould patriarchic attitude of the village elders to ensure harmony in the inter- generational relations? (250 Words) (25)


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